The question of who is Martin Luther King was the most curious subject of the day. In the USA, Martin Luther King’s birthday is celebrated every January 15 under the name ” Martin Luther King Day “. So who is Martin Luther King, Nobel Peace Prize winner in 1964?
Martin Luther King is an activist known for his anti-violence and views of racial equality. In the USA, every January 15 is celebrated under the name “Martin Luther King Day”. Here is Martin Luther King’s famous speech “I Have a Dream” and the sequence of events that caused him to reach the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964 …
WHO IS MARTIN LUTHER KING?
Martin Luther King, Jr. (January 15, 1929, Atlanta, Georgia – April 4, 1968, Memphis, Tennessee) An African-American Baptist pastor and leader of the American civil rights movement.
It is known worldwide for its anti-violence and views of racial equality, and Nobel Peace Prize in 1964 He won. Also, in 1977, 9 years after his death, the former US president jimmy carter and Martin Luther King Day in his honor. King’s most known and influential speech is “I Have a Dream”.
Family and background
Martin was born in Atlanta, Georgia to Marthin Luther King and Alberta Williams King. According to the birth records of Martin Luther King Jr., his name was Michael when he was born. After high school he attended Marehouse College. Here he was influenced by Benjamin Mays, who was president and also a civil rights leader. He graduated from the Department of Sociology in 1948. He then graduated 1st from the Crozer College of Theology in Chester, Pennsylvania, in 1951. He received his master’s degree in Systematic Theology from Boston University in 1955.
King married Coretta Scott in 1953. King’s father held the wedding at the bride’s father’s house. King and Scott had 4 children: Yolanda Denise, Martin Luther III, Dexter Scott, and Bernice Albertine. All four of King’s children followed their father’s path and became civil rights activists. Coretta Scott died on January 30, 2006.
Citizen rights activism
King became the pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama, in 1953 when he was just 24 years old, his most important black church. On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested for disobeying this even though Jim Crow’s law had to give her place to a white man. Thereupon, King organized the Montgomery Bus Boycott. The boycott lasted 382 days and the situation got so tense that King’s house was bombed. During this boycott, King was arrested. The boycott continued until the American Supreme Court declared racial discrimination in interstate buses and other means of transport illegal.
After this boycott, King played an important role in the 1957 establishment of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), which aimed to unite black churches and to hold peaceful demonstrations for civil rights reform. King played an important role in this establishment until his death. King was a follower of the non-violent philosophy of civil disobedience practiced by Mahatma Gandhi and applied this philosophy by the SCLC in demonstrations.
The FBI began listening to King from 1961 for fear of communist infiltration into the Civil Rights movement. However, no such evidence was found. The FBI used the records it had for 6 years to force King to leave the leadership position.
AJ Muste, a pacifist, advised Marthin Luther King in his political actions. King, well-organized, non-violent demonstrations against the apartheid system in the south, also known as Jim Crow laws, would receive great media coverage. Indeed, the programs written by journalists and broadcast on television sparked great interest in the Civil Rights Movement and made it the most important agenda item in America in the 1960s.
King organized and organized demonstrations for black suffrage, end of discrimination, employee rights and other fundamental rights. All these rights became a part of American law with the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
Walking to washington
King is perhaps best known for his “I Have a Dream” speech in front of the Lincoln Memorial during “March to Washington for Work and Freedom” in 1963.
I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character.(Martin Luther King)
King, representing the SCLC, was among the leaders of civil rights organizations that were instrumental in organizing the event called “The Big Six”, March to Washington for Work and Freedom. Other organizations and individuals that made up the Big Six were: Ray Wilkins, NAACP; Whitney Young Jr., Urban League; Philip Randalph, Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; John Lewis, SCNC; James Farmer, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). For King, this was a controversial role, as King was one of those who agreed with John F. Kennedy’s wishes to change the focus of the march. Kennedy initially opposed the march firmly because he thought it would negatively affect the enactment of the law on citizens’ rights. But the organizers of the march were determined to continue the march.
The march was originally intended as an opportunity for the deplorable blacks of the South and the march’s organizers to express their wishes and grievances openly in the country’s capital. The organizers were considering criticizing the inability of the federal government to ensure the rights and safety of blacks and civil rights workers living in the South. However, the group succumbed to the pressure and influence of the US president, and the demonstration used a much softer tone.
As a result, some civic rights activists thought the demonstration presented a picture of racial cohesion free of false, unwanted portions. Malcolm X called the show “Farce on Washington”.
However, the march made clear demands: an end to racial segregation in public schools, the enactment of a civil rights law, a ban on racial discrimination in the workplace, the protection of civil rights activists from police violence, the increase of the minimum wage to $ 2 an hour.
Despite the tensions, the march was quite successful. 250,000 people from different ethnic groups participated in the march. This event was by then the most crowded show in Washington history. King’s “I have a dream” speech made the crowd even more excited. This speech is regarded as one of the best speeches in American history.
King wrote and spoke many times during his tenure. The “Letter from Birmingham Prison”, written in 1963, is a passionate demonstration of the pursuit of justice. In 1964, he was awarded the Nobel Prize at the youngest age for non-violent resistance to overthrow racial prejudice in the United States.
Attitude towards compensation
On several occasions, Martin Luther King has stated that black Americans should receive compensation for historical injustices. Speaking to Alex Haley in 1965, he said that it was not enough to provide black equality alone to close the economic gap between whites and blacks. King was not aiming to recover the wages lost due to slavery, he thought it was impossible. King was proposing that $ 50 billion worth of money be distributed to blacks within 10 years as part of a state compensation program. King realized that the benefits of this money, such as low crime rates, low school dropout rates, reduced family disintegration, would be much more financial return than money spent on society. King, 1964, “Why We Can’t-Wait” (Why We Can ‘
King and SCLC tried to organize a march from the city of Selma to the state capital, Montgomery, on March 25, 1965, with the partial participation of SCNC. The first trial on March 7 was canceled due to the violence of the opposing crowd and the police. This day has been called “Bloody Sunday” from that date. Bloody Sunday was a turning point in providing public support for the Civil Rights Movement. However, King was not present during the show. After meeting with President Lyndon B. Johnson, King asked to postpone the show on 8 March. However, the march was continued by local civil rights workers against King’s will. Police violence against the demonstrators was widely broadcast, and the footage caused great indignation in the public.
The second attempt was made on March 9. King stopped the demonstrators at Edmund Petrus Bridge outside the city of Selma in this trial. King had previously negotiated this move with the city’s dignitaries. King’s unexpected move caused a surprise resentment among the local movement. The march exactly continued on 25 March and ended.
In 1966, after the successes achieved in the South, King and other Citizen Rights Activists tried to spread this movement to the North. Their first goal was the city of Chicago. King and Ralph Abernaty, although both middle-class people, moved to the suburbs of Chicago to demonstrate their support for the poor and as an educational experiment.
Its organizations, The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), Albert Raby, Jr. It collaborated with the Coordinating Council of Community Organizations (CCCO), an organization founded by The Chicago Freedom Movement (CFM). That spring, black pair / white pair tests on real estate offices revealed the practice of “steering”, now banned by the Real Estate Industry. These tests show that home claims are evaluated based on race, same income, education, the child revealed the fact that couples with the number and other common traits are treated differently simply because of their race.
The movement’s desire for radical change grew, and some major marches were planned and carried out. Some of these walks took place in the following locations: Bogan, Belmont-Cragin, Jefferson Park, Evergreen Park (a suburb of Chicago), Gage Park and Marquette Park, and others.
They were received worse in Chicago than in the South, as Abernaty wrote later. Their march came face to face with crowds throwing bottles and shouting, and they feared to cause a riot. King did not want to cause a violent incident in his views, so if King doubted that the show would be violently suppressed, he would cancel the show for the safety of others. But regardless, King successfully led demonstrations despite death threats. The violence they faced in Chicago was so difficult to overcome that it affected the two friends.
Another problem was the hypocritical behavior of city managers. King and Abernaty had agreed on actions to be taken, but the agreements were destroyed by the corrupt political order set up by mayor Richerd J. Delay. Abernaty could not survive the slums for long and left after a while. King stayed for a while and wrote emotional articles about Coretta and her children’s terrible living conditions.
When King and his allies returned to the south again, they brought a religious school student named Jesse Jackson to head their organization. Jackson demonstrated superior speaking skills and organized the first successful boycott against chain stores. One of these boycotts was organized against A&P Stores to agree to hire blacks as salespeople. This campaign was so successful that it laid the foundations for equal opportunity programs that started in the 1970s. Jackson also initiated the establishment of the first “black EXPO”, called Operation Breadbasket, under the auspices of SCLC. Operation Breadbasket later continued as Operation PUSH after leaving SCLC. Black EXPO, PUSH Expo ‘ and continued to help the longstanding and newly established Black Workplaces to stand out. Some of these workplaces are Johnson Publishing, Parker House Sausage, Seaway National Bank, and other companies that still continue their business today and owe their existence to the current state of the organization.
Beginning in 1965, King began to voice doubts about the US role in the Vietnam War. On April 4, 1967, at the Riverside Church in New York City – exactly one year before he was murdered – King gave his speech titled Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence. In his speech, King spoke strongly against America’s role in the war, stated that America was in Vietnam “to make it an American colony” and called the USA “the world’s largest violence provider today”. But he also argued that the country needed a broader and broader moral change:
“A real revolutionary change in moral values would be disturbing on the striking contrast between poverty and prosperity. This change will look on the other side of the sea with justified anger and see that the capitalist individuals of the West have invested large sums of money in Asia, Africa, and South America just to make a profit, without regard to the social development of those countries, and will say: “This is not fair at all. . ” „
King had long been hated by the segregationists, but his speech turned the mainstream media against him. Time magazine described the speech as “a demagogic attack similar to that written for Radio Hanoi”. The Washington Post newspaper also stated that King’s case “reduced its usefulness for his country and people”.
With regard to Vietnam, King stated that North Vietnam “did not send large volumes of troops and supplies until tens of thousands of American soldiers arrived” (Michael Lind, Vietnam: The Necessary War, 1999 p.182). King also praised North Vietnam’s land reform. (Lind, 1999) King also accused the US of killing 1 million Vietnamese, mostly “children”. (Guenter Lewey, America in Vietnam, 1978 pp. 444–5)
This speech was a reflection of King’s evolving political stance. In a way, this evolution was caused by King’s ties to the progressive organization called the Highlander Research and Education Center and the education he received at that institution. King began to talk about the fundamental changes needed in the political and economic life of the country. Towards the end of his life, King began to express his anti-war views more frequently than the need to redistribute resources to correct economic and racial injustice. While he was careful not to be associated with communism by his political enemies in the public sphere, he spoke in private speeches for his support for democratic socialism:
“You can’t talk about solving Negro economic problems without talking about billions of dollars. You can’t talk of ending the slums without mentioning destroying the profits from the suburbs. But at that time, you have to deal with dangerous people in dangerous waters. You have to deal with industry leaders … This means we are trying to hunt in dangerous waters because we say something is wrong with capitalism. There must be a better distribution of wealth, and perhaps America should move towards democratic socialism. (Frogmore, SC November 14, 1966. Speech before staff) “
King read Marx while in Morehouse. However, while he rejects “traditional capitalism”, Communism has “historical materialistic interpretation”, rejection of religion, “relative ethics” and
On April 3, 1968, the King addressed an excited crowd listening to him at the Mason Temple (Church of God in Christ Center) as if he knew what would happen to him (I went to the Mountaintop speech):
“It doesn’t matter what happens to me after this time. Some started talking about what could be done against me by some of our sick white brothers. Like everyone else, I want to live a long life. It’s important to live long, but I’m not interested in that right now. I just want to do God’s will. And he gave me permission to climb this mountain. And I looked around and saw the Promised Land. I may not be able to go there with you. But tonight I want you to know that we as the people will reach those Promised Lands. That’s why I’m happy tonight. I am not worried about anything. I am not afraid of anyone. My eyes have seen the Glory of God’s coming! “
King died the next day as a result of his assassination.
Martin Luther King’s tombstone
In March 1968, King traveled to Memphis to support black healthcare professionals. AFSCME Local 1733, representing black healthcare workers, had been on strike since March 12 and demanded higher wages and better treatment. For example, unlike white workers, when black workers were sent home due to bad weather, they were unpaid and paid less than whites.
On April 3, King spoke to a community in Memphis and delivered his speech titled “I’ve been to the Mountaintop”.
King was killed at 6 pm on April 4 in a gun attack on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis. When his friends in the motel room heard gunshots, he ran to the balcony and found King shot in the throat. At 7:04 am St. He died at Joseph’s Hospital. The assassination caused riots in more than 60 cities. Five days later, US President Lyndon B. Johnson declared mourning. On the same day, a crowd of 300,000 attended his funeral. Vice President Hubert Humphrey attended the funeral on behalf of the President.
Two months after King’s murder, fugitive inmate James Earl Ray was caught at Heathrow Airport, England, trying to leave England on a fake passport. Ray was soon returned to the United States. Ray was charged with the murder of King and confessed to the assassination on March 10, 1969. (Ray came back from this confession 3 days later.) Ray was sentenced to 99 years in prison.
Upon the suggestion of his attorney Parcy Foreman, Ray confessed to the guilt, thus avoiding the risk of a death sentence due to a court conviction. But this did not prevent him from receiving a 99-year prison sentence.
According to biographer Taylor Branch, according to the conclusion from King’s autopsy, although King was 39 when he died, he had the heart of a 60-year-old person. This was due to the stressful life he lived during his 13 years of civil rights activism. According to this, in the last 13 years of King’s life, he had aged 34 years, 2.5 times faster than a person living a normal life.
Morehouse College of Arts graduated in 1948 sociology. He received his theology license from the Crozer Theology Seminars in 1951. He received his doctorate in philosophy from Boston University in 1955. In 1954, Martin Luther King became pastor of the Dexter Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama. Montgomery led the bus boycott. Bus boycotts were caused by discrimination in the country. There have been tension post-boycotts over Miss Rosa Parks’s refusal to give a white her seat. Black revolts have begun. Martin Luther King ended his action after the US administration stopped discrimination in buses.
He strived for the belief of racial equality and advocated non-violence against injustice. King, who organized the first protests in Montgomery, Alabama, was known for his peaceful actions in Atlanta, Georgia. King then gave his famous “I Have a Dream” speech in front of the Lincoln Memorial in August 1963 in Washington, DC. The pro-peace protests initiated by Martin Luther King led to the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. By law, racial discrimination is prohibited in the United States.
King was awarded the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize for his work for human rights and for the elimination of black people from being second-class citizens.
Martin Luther King was assassinated on April 4, 1968 in Memphis, Tennessee.
Every year since 1986, on the third Monday of January in the US, on King’s birthday, the civil rights leader and his lifelong ideals are commemorated, spoken, and King’s love for peace is expressed.
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Martin Luther King Day is celebrated on the 15th of January every year. The importance of Martin Luther King day is crucial to the rights of black people. As a result of the protests for civil rights, the citizens won their rights and declared the day of achieving their goals as Martin Luther King day. The meaning of Martin Luther King day is important to America’s civil rights. Google prepared a commemoration for Martin Luther King day.