How did astronomy originate? History of astronomy. The basis of modern astronomy is the development of the first civilizations in Mesopotamia, where astronomical observations were made, and the distinctive constellations (patterns formed by the stars in the galaxy) of these civilizations were recorded and named in BC It dates back to the 3000’s.
The inventors of modern astronomy are considered the Sumerians. Seeking their god in the sky, the Sumerians built temples called Ziggurat for this purpose. The Sumerians observed and recorded the movements of planets such as Venus, Mercury, Jupiter and Mars, which can be seen with the naked eye, using the upper part of the temples as an observatory. They predicted when the solar and lunar eclipses would occur. By describing the solar system, they assumed that it consisted of 12 objects. The Sumerians, the inventors of the 60-based system, took advantage of this system when making adjustments related to space and time.
Where did astronomy originate? history of astronomy
BC in Mesopotamia From the 18th century, the Babylonians flourished, becoming the first great astronomers. Babylonians, who were considered mathematical geniuses and continued the base 60 system, discovered the minute and second number system, which is the modern astronomical measurement unit. As a result of their observations, the Babylonians accepted the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn as stars and stated that these 5 stars and the Sun and the Moon, the satellite of the Earth, constitute the seven basic planets. They realized that the order of transits in the zodiac of these 7 planets they accepted could be used as a divine measure of time. Thus, the concepts of 1 week and 7 days emerged. This is the basis for assigning a day to each planet based on their position in the sky.
History of astronomy. Egyptians and Babylonians
For example, Sunday is written as Sunday in English. The expression Sun in this word means the Sun. Besides all this, the Babylonians distinguished 12 constellations in the sky, which can be distinguished by the names of animals. Later, the Greeks expressed these constellations as the ‘Animal Circle (Zodiakos Cyklos), thus the term Zodiac emerged. The Babylonians associated the 12 constellations of the Zodiac with the periods of the year and linked these periods with the Gods. The acceptance of a year as 12 months is based on these 12 constellations.
Inspired by the Egyptians and mostly the Babylonians, the Greeks made significant advances in both astronomy and astrology. The ingenious but inaccurate geometric Ptolemaic systems of the Greeks, who viewed astronomy as a branch of mathematics, enjoyed support for more than 1000 years into medieval Europe. With the conquests of Alexander the Great, Greek astronomy spread to a large geography.
How Astronomy originated in Europe
When we came to Renaissance Europe, Copernicus, who is accepted as the founder of modern astronomy, introduced the heliocentric solar system model. This idea was later refined and developed by Galileo and Kepler. Kepler stated that the motion of the planets orbiting the Sun in certain orbits depends on certain laws. Newton, who later discovered the law of gravitation, would explain this.
Toward the turn of the century, the spectrometer was invented. And then giant telescopes, new technological precision instruments were invented. Then orbiting satellites appeared. We were able to explore part of the sun and other stars, solar system, galaxies. It led to further exploration of the surroundings and contents of other stars. Electromagnetic rays emitted by the sun and other stars could be analyzed with a spectrometer. Ambient conditions such as their contents, masses and temperature were determined.
Relationship between Astronomy and Science
Giant telescopes allowed better observation of the universe. The discovery of galaxies and the separation of the galaxy we are in is important. Observations of the most distant galaxies, the beginning of the universe. Also assumptions about what will happen in the future. Understanding that the universe is expanding and galaxies are moving away from each other. The telescope has had great success in this regard. all thanks to giant telescopes. Satellites began to be used as telescopes because better observations could be made. Thanks to these satellites, planets and other celestial bodies in our solar system were observed and mapped more clearly.